Description of variables
Did not notice or read anything on this page
Saw something on the page, but didn’t notice the current ad
Saw the ad Don’t know/Unsure
Ad recall — when an individual notices a communication — measures the ability an advertisement has to create an enduring memory trace with the respondent. When the respondent recognizes the target object again in the questionnaire, a recall is registered. Relevance, brand strength, message, creativity and the size of the measured object are all important elements in getting the target object noticed and recognized. A number of conditions must be in place to create an opportunity for recognition. Usually, the most important basic conditions for an advertisement to achieve are relevance and meeting a need.
How closely did you read/look at the ad/insert/supplement?
Thoroughness is the variable that measures the extent to which a respondent observed or read the target object (e.g. advertisement) Interviewees who were thoroughly engaged readers’ of the target object (gave 7-10 on a scale of 10), were on the whole the respondents who spent more time with the target object compared to others. People who spend more time take better note of creativity and the message, and in the survey they are as a rule more positive toward the target object, the campaign and the advertiser.
How did you like the ad?
Overall impression expresses the total scores of all the positive and negative feelings the respondents may experience concerning the target communication. In many cases, overall grade can be seen as a metric for the general feeling of affinity the individual advertisement or campaign has created. Originality, Interesting and Intelligibility are all variables that usually have high covariance with overall grade and therefore a high degree of impact.
How difficult or easy was it to understand the source/sender of the ad?
The variable measures the ease or difficulty that the respondent had in understanding the sender’s identity. The standard graph shows those who have given 9-10 on a scale of 10. This means the requirements for this variable are set more stringently than those of other variables. Generally speaking, there is a clear link to familiarity with the sender and the respondents’ answers to this question. The metric for the sender ID is also naturally affected to the highest degree by how clearly the sender has chosen to communicate this.
How well did you previously know the advertiser?
Previous knowledge measures the level to which the respondent was familiar with the sender of the target object (e.g advertiser) . Familiarity plays an important part in the target object’s ability to be recognized. In most cases, a high degree of familiarity usually also means that the respondent has reasonably good knowledge of the sender’s operation and quality. Furthermore, in almost every case, the familiarity principle (mere-exposure effect) automatically means better-known senders or known brands are perceived as more positive than lesser-known senders. Building familiarity is thus extremely important for both recognition and positive association.
Ad appeals to you
Relevance — the degree to which the target object appeals to the respondent measures the degree of relevance for the interviewee. Relevance is the single most important variable when it comes to explaining how Observation (memory traces) arises. Relevance usually has the highest correlation to Observation. A lack of relevance or poor relevance usually results in low or mediocre Observation. There is quite simply no logic in taking note of and remembering a communication that is not relevant, applicable or valid for the recipient.
The ad is interesting
Actually, the variable ‘interesting’ covers several closely related concepts: compelling, captivating, engaging, exciting, entertaining, fascinating and remarkable. When the target object is perceived as interesting by respondents, it usually also largely explains why the Overall impression variable is also important for conveying a positive sender image.
Easy to understand
The ad is easy to understand
The Intelligibility variable measures the degree to which respondents perceive the communication to be immediately easy to understand or grasp. Time with the reader is limited and the message the advertiser seeks to put across should be decipherable within the time available. When the target object is perceived as intelligible by respondents, it is also linked strongly to Overall Grade. The variable is also important for conveying a positive sender image.
The ad contains news or new information
The New Information variable measures the degree to which respondents felt that they gained new information or learned something new via the communication. Some communications actually contain no new information except perhaps prices. It is more important in some industries than others to especially communicate news, new technology and new product advantages etc.
The ad makes me feel positive towards the advertiser
The Positive variable measures the degree to which the communication has created, or reinforced, the sender’s image. Naturally, the communication can either weaken or strengthen the respondent’s view of the sender. Many variables usually have a greater influence than others in ensuring a positive reinforcement of the communication; that it is perceived as interesting, creative/original, intelligible and that it receives a high overall grade. All of them induce the respondent to regard the advertiser more positively. A positive result increases the value of the company’s brand.
The ad has an original design
Originality — the degree to which the communication is unique, original or creative, measures the degree of innovation perceived by the interviewee. Originality usually creates approval and curiosity; it is an important variable in explaining why the respondent gives a higher overall grade and regards the advertiser more positively. An original communication is given more time and can engender significantly longer memories than a less creative layout.
Have you benefited or will you benefit from something in the ad?
As a concept, Benefit measures the degree to which the communication provides a direct benefit to the respondent and/or creates a feeling of future benefit. The perception of benefit is an extremely important variable in understanding and explaining how a type of action arises, be it a search for more information, a visit to a sales outlet or a purchase. When no benefit is perceived, the respondent will not act or show any willingness to act.
Did you react to the advertisement emotionally?
The Emotional Reaction variable measures the strength of feeling the target object engenders — i.e. the degree of emotional impact. The emotion is a reaction to the stimulus — the target object. Emotions are sometimes innate biological responses, sometimes learned. If the stimulus (e.g. the presentation of the target object) is emotionally relevant, it will act as a reinforcer; both positive and negative reinforcement are possible. The strength of an emotion affects how long the respondent will remember the target object. Common basic emotions are interest/curiosity, pleasure/pride, surprise, anger, fear, sorrow/dejection, shame, loathing and disgust/aversion
Look for more information
Have you looked for or will you look for more information as a result of seeing the ad?
The Searching for Further Info variable measures the degree to which the communication led the respondent to try to find out more information. It can refer to all kinds of information searches; through friends, colleagues, by telephone, the internet, catalogs or newspapers. This variable describes how the communication influenced respondents’ actions. Distinct, special-offer advertisements often mean high values in this variable and the variables below. There are clear indications as to how such an advertisement is able to create a significant ROI for the advertiser.
Visit a website
Have you visited or will you visit the website as a result of the target object?
The variable Visiting a Website measures the degree to which the communication led the respondent to go online and visit a website. This variable describes how the communication influenced respondents’ actions. Distinct, special-offer advertisements often mean high values in this variable and the variables below. There are clear indications as to how such an advertisement is able to create a significant ROI for the advertiser. This can be further verified by measuring traffic to the advertiser’s website.
Have you visited or will you visit this advertiser as a result of seeing this ad?
The variable Visiting a Sales Outlet measures the degree to which the communication led the respondent to physically visit or plan a visit to a retail store or some other sales outlet. This variable describes how the communication influenced respondents’ actions. Distinct, special-offer advertisements often mean high values in this variable and the variable below. There are clear indications as to how such an advertisement is able to create a significant ROI for the advertiser.
Have bought/will buy
Have you bought or will you buy something as a result of seeing this ad?
The variable ‘purchasing something as a result of the target object’ measures the degree to which the communication led the respondent to have actually already purchased something or plan to purchase something as a result of the communication. This variable describes how the communication influenced respondents’ actions. Distinct, special-offer advertisements often mean high values in this variable and the variable below. There are clear indications as to how such an advertisement is able to create a significant ROI for the advertiser.